By David Stevenson
In the summertime of 1914 Europe exploded right into a frenzy of mass violence. The struggle that had international repercussions, destroying 4 empires and costing hundreds of thousands of lives. Even the positive international locations have been scarred for a new release, and we nonetheless this present day stay in the conflict's shadow. during this significant new research, released a few 90 years after the 1st global conflict started, David Stevenson re-examines the explanations, path and effect of this 'war to finish war', putting it within the context of its period and exposing its underlying dynamics. His ebook presents a wide-ranging overseas background, drawing on insights from the most recent examine. It bargains compelling solutions to the main questions on how this bad fight spread out: questions that stay disturbingly correct for our personal time
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Extra info for 1914-1918: The History of the First World War
From the 1840s warships converted from sail to steam (and from wooden to steel hulls), and railways transported and supplied much larger armies. After the Franco-Prussian War, in which German levies moved by rail outnumbered and overwhelmed French regulars, massive conscript armies and intensive railway building became the norm. The second phase of transformation centred on firepower. In the later nineteenth century chemical high explosives made gunpowder obsolete. , machined with a spiral groove within the bore to spin the projectile) fired further, faster, and more accurately.
How far were Austria-Hungary’s accusations accurate, and why was it committed to so overbearing a course? 26 Although the Bosnian terrorist movement was home-grown, it did enjoy Serbian backing. After centuries of Ottoman Turkish rule, Bosnia and the neighbouring territory of Herzegovina had been transferred to Austro-Hungarian administration in 1878. Bosnia was Austria-Hungary’s colonial frontier, a wild and mountainous outback to which it brought roads, schools, and a short-lived parliament. 27 In 1908–09, despite vehement protests from Serbia and a prolonged international crisis, Austria-Hungary annexed the two provinces.
Machined with a spiral groove within the bore to spin the projectile) fired further, faster, and more accurately. Navies equipped their steam-powered warships with telescopic sights and quick-firing guns delivering high-explosive shells. 18 Yet the 1905 Battle of Tsushima, in which Japanese gunfire annihilated a Russian fleet, was not to be a portent of the future, as another clutch of innovations – torpedoes, mines, and submarines – now made battleships more vulnerable and more reluctant to seek action.