By Alessandro Boselli
Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–13):
Chapter 2 X?Ray (pages 17–23):
Chapter three UV?Optical?NIR (pages 25–40):
Chapter four The Infrared (pages 41–49):
Chapter five Millimeter and Centimeter Radio (pages 51–57):
Chapter 6 houses of the recent X?Ray Emitting fuel (pages 61–62):
Chapter 7 airborne dirt and dust houses (pages 63–69):
Chapter eight Radio homes (pages 71–75):
Chapter nine The Spectral power Distribution (pages 77–90):
Chapter 10 Spectral positive aspects (pages 91–106):
Chapter eleven fuel homes (pages 107–123):
Chapter 12 airborne dirt and dust Extinction (pages 125–142):
Chapter thirteen megastar Formation Tracers (pages 143–159):
Chapter 14 gentle Profiles and Structural Parameters (pages 161–170):
Chapter 15 Stellar and Dynamical lots (pages 171–191):
Chapter sixteen Statistical instruments (pages 195–213):
Chapter 17 Scaling family members (pages 215–233):
Chapter 18 subject Cycle in Galaxies (pages 235–243):
Chapter 19 The function of our surroundings on Galaxy Evolution (pages 245–254):
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The intensity of the recombination lines is proportional to the ionization rate, which in turns depends on the luminosity of the exciting source. The relative intensity of hydrogen recombination lines depends only weakly on the temperature and only marginally on density for densities such as those measured in the interstellar medium. To measure the dust extinction of an emission line, the observed ratio of different hydrogen recombination lines can be compared to the expected value (see Chapter 12).
2 H2 UV Absorption Lines The electric dipole moment of symmetric molecules is zero at rest, and thus in molecular hydrogen only electronic transitions are permitted. These electronic 39 40 3 UV-Optical-NIR transitions of H2 are in the far-UV (λ Ä 1150 Å). When observed at high resolution, each electronic transition is resolved into a series of different lines, each one coming from a transition between the vibrational levels of the two electronic states. At higher resolution, each one of these vibrational lines can be further decomposed into several lines corresponding to different rotational sub-levels.
At higher resolution, each one of these vibrational lines can be further decomposed into several lines corresponding to different rotational sub-levels. When observed at low resolution, each electronic transition shows up as a broad absorption feature resulting from the superposition of all the roto-vibrational lines [75, 97]. 41 4 The Infrared During their evolution, stars produce and inject metals into the interstellar medium via stellar winds and supernova explosions. These metals aggregate to form dust grains of different sizes and compositions.