By Robert M. Julien, Claire D. Advokat, Joseph E. Comaty
Variation after version, Robert Julien’s A Primer of Drug motion keeps speed with probably the most dynamic fields of clinical inquiry, giving scholars instant entry to the most up-tp-date study and promising new instructions in psychopharmacology. carefully up to date all through, the hot version back takes its position because the definitive advisor to the medicine that have an effect on the brain and behaviour. As regularly, it really is transparent, finished, aim, and authoritative, spanning a wide selection of drug kinds, together with sedatives, depressants, stimulants, analgesics, psychedelic medicines, steroids, and medicine used to regard mental problems.
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Extra resources for A Primer of Drug Action: A comprehensive guide to the actions, uses, and side effects of psychoactive drugs
The interdependent variables that determine the ultimate concentration (or steady-state blood level of drug) are the dose (which determines the blood level but not the time to steady state), the dose interval, the half-life of the drug, and other more complex factors that can affect drug elimination. In summary, steady, regular-interval dosing leads to a predictable accumulation, with a steady-state concentration reached after about six 31 32 CHAPTER 1 H O W D R U G S A R E H A N D L E D B Y T H E B O DY half-lives; the magnitude of the concentration is proportional to dose and dosage interval.
This enzyme is called alcohol dehydrogenase. It is found in the cells lining the GI tract and in cells of the liver. As we will see in Chapter 13, women have less of this enzyme in the GI tract cells and therefore exhibit higher blood alcohol levels for a given amount of alcohol ingested (corrected for body weight) than do men. When injected (by whatever route), absorbed transdermally, or absorbed from mucous membranes, a drug bypasses intestinal absorption, DRUG DISTRIBUTION rapidly enters veins, and is carried in blood to the right side of the heart (with minimal amounts passing initially through the liver).
The two studies provide the basis for both the rational therapeutic use of a drug and the design of new and superior therapeutic agents. To produce an effect, a drug must bind to and interact with specialized receptors, usually located on cell membranes. In the case of psychoactive drugs, these receptors are usually located on the surface of neurons in the brain. The occupation of a receptor by a drug (drugreceptor binding) leads to a change in the functional properties of the neuron, resulting in the drug’s characteristic pharmacological response.