By Patrick Saint-Dizier

This e-book is an creation to Prolog (£rQgramming in ~ic). It provides the fundamental foundations of Prolog and simple and basic programming tools. This ebook is written for programmers acquainted with different programming languages, in addition to for newcomers in desktop technological know-how, keen to have an unique advent to programming. The strategy followed during this booklet is therefore in accordance with methodological parts including a few pragmatic elements. The e-book consists of 2 elements. within the fIrst half the most important points of programming in Prolog are offered step-by-step. every one new point is illustrated by means of brief examples and routines. the second one half consists of extra built examples, that are usually video games, that illustrate significant features of synthetic intelligence. extra complicated books are given within the bibliography and may enable the reader to deepen his or her understand ledge of Prolog. Prolog used to be first designed in France at OJ.A., Marseille, with a particular syntax. we have now followed right here a extra universal notation, outlined at Edinburgh, which has a tendency to be an implicit norm. on the finish of every bankruptcy of the 1st half, there are workouts that the reader is invited to do and to check on his or her laptop. entire solutions are given in Appendix A, on the finish of the book.

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S replaces X with a A z b The term V is written A b x 9 x y Once the substitution is made, V becomes b ~ a 9 /\/\ /\ b Z a Y b Z Chapter 4. Syntax of Prolog. The Unification Mechanism 35 = Note that the substitution 8(X,a(b,Z» applied to Tl f(Y,Z) leaves Tl unchanged because Tl does not contain any occurrence of the variable X. 7. Unification of Terms Two tenns T and U are unifiable if and only if there exist one or several substitutions that, applied simultaneously to T and U, make these two tenns identical.

1. The Problem We hope to defme the rule max(X,Y,R) which binds R to the larger of two numbers X and Y. If X is equal to Y, then X is chosen. We may then say that R R = X if X ~ Y, = Y if Y > X. This rule cannot be expressed with a single clause because we cannot express disjunctions of cases. We are thus led to propose two definitions for max with mutually exclusive conditions: max(X,Y,X) :- X >= Y. max(X,Y,Y) :- Y > X. We require two clauses to define max. Several clauses with the same head predicate form a procedure.

To avoid infinite loops, it is necessary that the tenn that replaces a variable does not contain any occurrences of this variable. That is, there must be no substitutions of the type x -> f( ••• ,X, ... ). If this case arises, it is necessary to rename the X in f. • f( ••• »»). Consider the substitution S(X,T), which replaces all the occurrences of variable X with the term T in another tenn. For example, S(X,a(b,Z» applied to the tenn V = b(X,g(Y,X» 34 Chapter 4. Syntax of Prolog. The Unification Mechanism results in S(V) = b(a(b,Z), g(Y,a(b,Z»).